In 2005-2007, the EnergyPLAN model was used in the EU-funded project DESIRE (Dissemination Strategy on Electricity Balancing for Large Scale Integration of Renewable Energy).
In six regions in Denmark, Germany, the UK, Poland, Spain and Estonia, models of the electricity supply were made and the magnitude of CHP regulation systems was evaluated against other relevant measures including the expansion of interconnectors.
Interregional and international transmission lines play an important role in the balancing of fluctuating and partly unpredictable electricity productions and consumptions, in particular when they connect areas with fundamentally different systems of electricity production units. An example of this is the balancing of wind power and hydro power with reservoirs between Denmark and Norway.
However, the scenario calculations for 2020 for the six regions have shown that new interregional transmission lines usually do not form the most profitable and sustainable solution to the balancing problem caused by an increased fluctuation in the electricity production. A range of technologies which can be applied to increase the internal balancing capacity has been analysed and described:
- CHP with heat stores (maybe with heat pumps).
- Flexible demands and Demand Side Management.
- Hydro power with reservoirs (maybe with reverse pumping).
- Electric cars (battery, hybrid or fuel cell).
The results of the study can be downloaded as deliverable 1.5 from the homepage of the DESIRE project.
The DESIRE project was financed by the 6th Framework Programme of the EU.