The PRIMES simulates a market equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand [1]. It has been developed by the National Technical University of Athens since 1994 but it is not sold to third parties. The model is used within consultancy projects undertaken by NTUA and partners.

The PRIMES model is a modelling system that simulates a market equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand. The model determines the equilibrium by finding the prices of each energy form such that the quantity producers find best to supply matches the quantity consumers wish to use. The equilibrium is static (within each time period) but repeated in a time-forward path, under dynamic relationships. The model is organized in sub-models (modules), each one representing the behaviour of a specific (or representative) agent, a demander and/or a supplier of energy. The model can support policy analysis in the following fields: (1) standard energy policy issues: security of supply, strategy, costs etc., (2) environmental issues, (3) pricing policy, taxation, standards on technologies, (4) new technologies and renewable sources, (5) energy efficiency in the demand-side, (6) alternative fuels, (7) conversion decentralisation, electricity market liberalisation, (8) policy issues regarding electricity generation, gas distribution and new energy forms, The model is organised by energy production sub-system (oil products, natural gas, coal, electricity and heat production, biomass supply, and others) for supply and by end-use sectors for demand (residential, commercial, transport, nine industrial sectors). Some demanders may be also suppliers, as for example industrial co-generators of electricity and steam.

PRIMES has previously been used to create energy outlooks for the EU 139 [2], develop a climate change action and RES policy package for the EU [3] and also, to analyse a number of different policies to reduce GHG in the EU25 by 2030 [4, 5]. Finally, PRIMES has been used for several EU governments as well as private companies.


  1. Energy – Economics – Environment Modelling Laboratory Research and Policy Analysis National Technical University of Athens, 26th April 2009,
  2. Capros, P., Mantzos, L., Papandreou, V. & Tasios, N. Energy and Transport Outlook to 2030 – Update 2007.European Communities, 2008,
  3. Impact Assessment: Package of Implementation measures for the EU’s objectives on climate change and renewable energy for 2020, Commission of European Communities, 2008,
  4. Bulteel, P., Belmans, R., Dolben, G., Garcia Madruga, M., Kallstrand, B., Lace, I., Livrieri, A., Nahon, C., Virkkala Nekhaev, E., Papageorgi, A., Saraiva, F., Stridbaek, U., Theis, K., Van Vliet, E. & Wunnerlich, M. The Role of Electricity: A New Path to Secure, Competitive Energy in a Carbon-Constrained World.eurelectric, 2007,
  5. Capros, P., Kouvaritakis, N. & Mantzos, L. Economic Evaluation of Sectoral Emission Reduction Objectives for Climate Change: Top-down Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Possibilities in the EU.National Technical University of Athens, 2001,