PERSEUS (Programme-package for Emission Reduction Strategies in Energy Use and Supply-Certificate Trading) is a model family with several different applications which is maintained by the Institute for Industrial Production at Universität Karlsruhe in Germany and the Chair for Energy Economics at the Brandenburgische Universität Cottbus (BTU), where in total about 25 PhD thesis have developed and advanced the model [1]. It is sold in general to energy utilities and six of the largest European energy utilities have bought the model for the use in their strategic departments, and costs vary considerably depending on the field of application and the time period for setting it up. The training period is usually two weeks of intensive training as well as further support for the project duration.

PERSEUS is an energy and material flow model applying a multi-periodic linear programming approach. The target function demands a minimisation of all decision-relevant expenditure within the entire energy supply system. This basically comprises fuel supply and transport costs, transmission fees, fix and variable costs of the physical assets (operation, maintenance, load variation costs etc.) and investment costs for new plants. The relevant techno-economic characteristics of the real supply system have been considered by implementing further equations covering technical, ecological and political restrictions. The most important technical restrictions are: (1) Physical energy and material balances: match of demand and supply taking into account the storage option and the time structure of electricity and heat demand. The time structure is constructed using load curves which represent typical days with 36 to 72 time slots for one year, and the longest duration that can be simulated is 50 years. (2) Capacity restrictions: transmission capacities, availability of installed capacities, (de)commissioning restrictions, technical lifetime of physical assets. (3) Plant operation: maximum/minimal fully operating hours, fuel options, cogeneration options, load variation restrictions. The model can simulate all thermal generation, renewable, and storage and conversion technologies. However, only electric vehicles can be simulated within transport. A detailed description of the entire model can be found in [2].

PERSEUS has been used previously to analyse the benefits of international mechanisms to combat climate change [3], to investigate the effects of the emissions trading scheme on the European electricity sector [4], and the PERSEUS model has been used in conjunction with the AEOLIUS energy model to analyse the effects from large-scale integration of wind [5]. Finally, the largest renewable-energy penetrations simulated by the PERSEUS model are 100% of the electricity sector and 50% of the heat sector [2]. It has never been used to simulate renewable energy in the transport sector.


  1. Institute for Industrial Production, Universität Karlsruhe, 18th June 2009,
  2. Rosen, J. The future role of renewable energy sources in European electricity supply – A model-based analysis for the EU-15, 2008. Ph.D. Thesis, Institute for Industrial Production, Universitätsverlag Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany.
  3. Fichtner, W., Goebelt, M. & Rentz, O., The efficiency of international cooperation in mitigating climate change: analysis of joint implementation, the clean development mechanism and emission trading for the Federal Republic of Germany, the Russian Federation and Indonesia. Energy Policy, 29(10), pp. 817-830, 2001.
  4. Most, D., Genoese, M., Esser, A. & Rentz, O., European electricity and emission market modeling – the design of emission allocation plans and its effects on investment planning, Proc. of the EEM 2008 – 5th International Conference on European Electricity Market, Lisbon, Portugal, 28-30 May.
  5. Rosen, J., Tietze-Stöckinger, I. & Rentz, O., Model-based analysis of effects from large-scale wind power production. Energy, 32(4), pp. 575-583, 2007.